Seismic geophone sensor convert ground movement or a kind of vibration into voltage, which could be acquired by the acquisition system. The deviation of this measured voltage from the base line is called the geophone response and is analyzed for learning structure of the earth, reflected inner structure of earth crust or monitoring vibration generated by nature, human or industrial engineering.
Geophone Sensors are typically comprise a spring-mounted wire coil moving within the field of a case-mounted permanent magnet to generate an electrical signal. The response of the geophone sensor is proportional to ground velocity. The frequency response of a geophone sensor is a kind of harmonic oscillator, which is determined by corner frequency (typically around 10 Hz) and damping (typically 0.707) but it is possible to lower the corner frequency electronically, at the price of higher noise and cost.